Facts about Ext4 file system in Linux

EXT4 is one of the major file systems used primarily in the operating systems on Linux kernel. For more information you can find on the Internet: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ext4
Compared to EXT3 file system, EXT4 supports larger files and filesystems, is more faster, more efficient and stable system.

Formatting the drive in EXT4 file system is recommended to run GNU/Linux operating system or with special utility programs and for working with disks. Ext4 doesn’t need defragging has no notion of limitations on the number of nested directories.



13 of interesting features and facts about Ext4

1. The Ext4 file system is not that new. It was presented in 2006 — about 12 years ago. But was so successful that now hardly anyone feels batthert from any restrictions. Quick, convenient and very reliable file system.

2. Author of development — Theodore Cao — called Ext4 is a temporary solution, which should remove current limitations Ext3, which Linux users have already started to bomb, but to maintain compatibility with previous versions of Ext.

3. Ext4 is externally slightly different from Ext3, but internal changes was so serious that the new FS had better performance and more robust reliability. But there are fundamental differences.

4. Compatibility is implemented at the highest level. The Ext4 driver can mount Ext3 and work with the corresponding mode. Users of Linux Mint benefits from this no, but easier for developers to maintain and develop the codebase of the kernel.

5. The maximum file size is 16 tebibayt, and the size of the partition — 1 exbibit 1 To cram such amounts and to experience this suffering to try. On servers where the comparable volume is possible, instead of Ext4 uses distributed, clustered file system. We can safely say that the PC Ext4 will last for a long time.

6. Red Hat under a separate contract, provides some customer support for computers with Ext4 file system and file sizes up to 50 tebibayt.

7. The superiority of Ext4 over Ext3 in terms of performance achieved by a more intelligent algorithm for selection of blocks. The speed of reading and writing have Ext4 is much higher. For example, Ext3 calls the function selection blocks every time you need to write a separate block. If two or more parallel processes write to the disk, the files refuse is highly fragmented and will be read several times slower. Ext4 can allocate blocks in batches, whereby the record is faster — the head of a magnetic disk has less jumping above the surface of the disk. The smaller the degree of fragmentation has a positive effect on reading speed.

8. In the Ext3 file system can be no more than 32 thousand of subdirectories. Ext4 uses quick algorithm storage indexes — HTree — and the number of subdirectories is not limited. In theory, Ext3 can also store a bunch of nested directories, but each will decrease the performance.

9. Reliability. Ext3 is also a journaling FS. But for Ext4 logs added checksum. If something goes wrong, then Ext3 can theoretically still lose data. Ext4 is able to regenerate itself.

10. Check the integrity of Ext4 is much faster than the same test for Ext3. This is achieved by the fact that Ext4 is marking unselected blocks in a special way and does not check them. Ext3 and the old scans everything.

11. Defragmenting. Honestly, all three FS are fine. But all three have different approaches to defragmentation. For Ext2 you need to unmount the partition and run e2defrag. If this section is systemic, it won’t be easy. Ext3 is less susceptible to the problem of fragmentation, but there is another problem: blondes 2 often the error run e2defrag on Ext3 and got a completely broken system. Ext4 defragmentare itself and does not require desmontaje.

12. Ext4 no longer developing. It is a myth. The developers are preparing to surprise us. Soon will be eclipsing technology allows to manage quotas, improved logging, you will see a block size of 8K.

13. Ext4 is not without drawbacks. Journal of Ext4 is very good, but if we contrive to lose the data it is still possible — but this FS does not guarantee the integrity of all data. Another disadvantage of the Ext4 file system is that it’s just a file system. And I would like at least more sophisticated Volume Manager.

EXT4 on USB drives

Formatting in Linux

Usually in the distribution GNU/Linux operating system has some graphical utility for formatting USB drives and hard disks (for example, in Linux Mint Mintstick utility, in Ubuntu — Gnome Disk Utility etc.), and a utility for disk management GParted 0.25.0.

Here is an example of formatting a USB drive (flash drive) firmware using Mintstick.

Universal method for formatting a USB drive is to use a utility for disk management GParted 0.25.0. Usually it is already installed in the OS, but if necessary, you can install it from the official repositories (do sudo apt install gparted or sudo yum install gparted depending on the distribution).

Important! Drive with EXT4 file system cannot be used in Windows. If you need to connect the drive with EXT4 in Windows, you can use a special driver ext2fsdcommunity-developed open source software for file systems family ext.

Formatting in Windows

If necessary, you can generate formatting from Windows. For example, you can use the free version of the program MiniTool Partition Wizard Free Edition or Paragon Partition Manager Free.

Format in MiniTool Partition Wizard Free Edition:

Source: https://liberatum.ru/ and https://help.keenetic.com/


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